Bar Sauma was born in the Chinese city now called Beijing.  He was the son of an eminent and wealthy Christian family.  Following an honored Chinese practice, he withdrew from society and became a monk.  He moved to an isolated place to pursue a life of poverty, study, and contemplation.  After more than seven years, news of his wisdom became known.  People began to honor him and visit him to hear his words.  After several more years, he set off on a pilgrimage to Jerusalem.  A long journey and intervening events, including his elevation to an episcopate of the eastern Christian church, led him to meeting with Roman Catholic cardinals in Rome in 1287.[1]
Bar Sauma and the cardinals in Rome engaged in sophisticated discussion of the precise relationship of the Holy Spirit to the Father and the Son.  When asked to expound his creed, Bar Sauma provided a …
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