A ban on plastic carrier bags has come into force in Kenya, which means that anyone found selling, manufacturing or carrying them could face fines of up to $38,000 or prison sentences of up to four years.
The government says the ban will help protect the environment.
But manufacturers of the bags have argued that 80,000 jobs could be lost.
A court on Friday rejected a challenge to the ban. Kenyans are estimated to use 24 million bags a month.
Several other African countries have outlawed plastic carrier bags, including Rwanda, Mauritania and Eritrea.
Africa Live: Updates on this and other stories
Piles of waste plastic bags are a common site across Kenya, as in many African countries.
Animals often graze on the rubbish and the United Nations’ Environment Programme says huge amounts of polythene bags are pulled out of livestock in Nairobi’s abattoirs – as many as 20 bags per cow – raising fears …